infection (Fig. these protozoan infections were also investigated. Results Antibodies against spp., spp. and spp. infections were detected in 51 (7.1%), 46 (6.4%) and 20 (2.8%) of 721 equids, respectively. The principal risk factors associated with a higher seroprevalence of spp. were the host species (mule or donkey), LP-935509 the absence of shelter and the absence of a rodent control programme. The presence of rodents was the only risk factor for spp. contamination. Conclusions This study was the first extensive serosurvey of spp. infection in European equids accomplished by two complementary assessments and gives evidence of the presence of specific antibodies in these populations. However, the origin of the contamination is still unclear. Further parasite detection and molecular genotyping are needed to identify the causative and species. Finally, cross-reactions with antibodies directed against other species of might explain the positive reactions against the antigens. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12917-017-1046-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. spp., spp., spp., Spain, Serosurvey, Horse, Donkey, Mule, Risk factors Background Cystogenic coccidia such as spp., spp., and spp. have been reported to affect equids. and are the causative brokers of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a serious neurological disease of horses in the Americas . Rabbit Polyclonal to MAP3K8 Moreover, besnoitiosis in donkeys caused by in donkeys is an emerging disease in the United States . Several serosurveys of spp. and/or spp. infections have been carried out in horses and donkeys in Europe (France, Italy, Czech Republic, Sweden and Spain) [3, 4]. However, spp. contamination has not been studied in depth in European equids apart from only two reports of equine besnoitiosis. The first case of besnoitiosis in a horse was reported in Northern France . Recently, the disease was suspected in seven donkeys from Southern Spain since tissue cysts were detected by histopathology . Apart from species (and has been documented in reindeer in the Artic regions , whereas besnoitiosis caused by is usually a re-emergent cattle disease in western and Central LP-935509 Europe and has also LP-935509 been recently reported in roe deer and red deer in Spain [9C11]. Diagnostic tools that LP-935509 provide an accurate serological diagnosis of cystogenic coccidia infections must overcome cross-reactions. Particularly in equids, cross-reacts with . In addition, cross-reactions between anti-antibodies and antigens have also been observed . Thus, highly sensitive and specific assessments are mandatory in order to confirm an infection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs)-based on recombinant proteins provide an accurate diagnosis of and contamination [14, 15]. A tachyzoite extract-based ELISA is usually a routinely employed screening technique for spp. contamination and a western blot is used like a confirmatory check in a variety of ungulate varieties [2, 16]. Furthermore, a book ELISA predicated on the enrichment of particular antigens continues to be proven highly particular for the analysis of bovine besnoitiosis . The purpose of the present function was to look for the existence of particular antibodies against spp., spp. and spp. in horses, donkeys and mules from southern Spain (Andalusia). This is the 1st serosurvey of spp. disease in Western equids. Furthermore, the first outcomes of anti-spp. antibodies recognition in Spanish equids are shown. Strategies Sampled areas and experimental style A cross-sectional research was completed between January and March of 2010 in equine herds from Andalusia (southern Spain; 36 N – 38 60 N, 1 75 W – 7 25 W), which may be the Spanish area with the biggest amount of equines (start to see the dialogue section). A complete of 721 examples from horses (and recombinant proteins had been employed.