Combined anti IgG & IgM antibodies were found in 3
Combined anti IgG & IgM antibodies were found in 3.3?% (16 out of 487). Table?2 Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies (IgM & IgG) among pregnant women seropositivity was higher although not statistically significant among pregnant women aged 16C19?years, housewives, and among those who were pregnant for 2C4 times. Table?3 Seroprevalence of IgM and antibodies in pregnant women on admission by age and occupation and obstetric history IgMIgGIgG seroprevalence was found to increase significantly with age (2?=?7.97, IgG. Table?4 shows that the seroprevalence of anti IgM was significantly higher among pregnant women who had a history of intake of immunosuppressive drugs (IgM. both anti IgG & IgM. The only risk factor associated with seropositive anti IgM was the history of the intake of immunosuppressive drugs. Regarding anti IgG seropositivity, it was found to increase significantly with increased age, number of gravida and parities, and previous history of toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of IgG & IgM by ELISA among pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia is considerable with few identifiable significant risk factors reported. seroprevalence is evolving worldwide and is subjected to complex environmental, socioeconomic and L-655708 health-related practices (Pappas et al. 2009). It is more L-655708 prevalent in some regions than in others and varies between different population groups within the same region (Asthana et al. 2006). In Saudi Arabia, the seroprevalence among pregnant women varies according to the region from 25?% in Jeddah (Tonkal 2008) to 42.1?% in Dammam (Abbas et al. 1986). Undoubtedly, the early and proper diagnosis of infection L-655708 in pregnant women (with the possible risk of transplacental transmission) or their babies leads to effective treatment and minimizes complications (Nagaty et al. 2009). Serological diagnosis represents the first and most widely used approach to define the stage of infection, whether current, recent or past (Sensini 2006). Pregnant women have a great vulnerability to due to the alterations in the immune mechanisms inherent to gestation. So, this study is of the utmost importance to determine the immunity of pregnant women in the south western region to this parasite. Provided with this, we can estimate the magnitude of toxoplasmosis among this critical group. This study will also help to define the possible risk factors that may lead to toxoplasma infection in order to develop extensive health education campaigns to increase the awareness and the knowledge of preventive behavior among Saudi population toward toxoplasmosis. Materials and methods Study population This cross sectional hospital based study was conducted in three hospitals: (a) King Faisal Armed Forces Hospital (KFAFH) in Khamis Mushait, (b) Abha General Hospital (AGH) and (c) Maternal and Child Hospital (MCH) in Abha, south western region of Saudi Arabia SLC3A2 from January 2008 to August 2010. A total sample of 487 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinics of the three hospitals was enrolled randomly in the study. An approval was taken from the Ethical Committee of King Khalid University and the previously mentioned hospitals to conduct the study. An informed written consent of the pregnant women who accepted to participate in the study was secured. Questionnaire interview on infection A short face to face questionnaire interview for pregnant women was carried out in the antenatal clinics of the three hospitals to obtain information regarding infection including age, residential address, consumption of raw or undercooked meat products, drinking unboiled milk, keeping pets including cats, intake of immunosuppressive drugs, known previous history of toxoplasmosis, and history of blood transfusion or organ transplantation. Additional information about number of pregnancies, children, abortion, and ultrasonographic follow-up was collected. Serological detection of infection From each pregnant woman, five ml of blood was withdrawn upon the first visit to the antenatal clinic to determine serum IgM and IgG antibody (Ab) levels against antigens using the TOXO IgM -capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for direct IgM antibody detection (REF 51119) (Human GMBH, Wiesbaden Germany, www.human.de) in which the microtitre wells were coated with anti-human IgM antibodies (mouse) and the HUMAN TOXO IgG ELISA (REF 51209) (Human GMBH, Wiesbaden Germany, www.human.de) which is based on the classical ELISA technique. The microtitre strip wells were coated with antigens prepared from sonicated whole parasites (ELISA). Methodology was done as described by the manufacturer. Equivocal results L-655708 were supposed to be verified 2C3?weeks latter to be considered as positive or negative, but this was not done and were excluded. Statistical.