Thus, the balance between ADAM-17 and TIMP-3 expression can control the inflammation process
Thus, the balance between ADAM-17 and TIMP-3 expression can control the inflammation process. and NO), TNF-has destructive effects on sperm , and the TNF-from the pro-TNF-molecule. Since ADAM-17 was found to be inhibited by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3); TIMP-3 are important factors involved in the regulation of the inflammatory process and the disease progression . Antioxidants quench free radicals and protect gonadal cells and mature spermatozoa from ROS production and oxidative damage . According to the World Health Organization (WHO), developing countries make use of herbal medicinal products for a variety problems due to their safety and the side effects of chemical drugs . Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid that belongs to the structural class of protoberberines  and is present in roots, rhizomes, and stem bark of the species that belongs to the Berberidaceae family. Berberine is the most active constituent in [18C20]. Several studies have indicated that berberine acts as a natural medicine with multiple biochemical and pharmacological activities [21, 22] including anti-inflammatory , antioxidant , antidepressant [25, 26], anticancer , hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic , and antimicrobial Nicardipine hydrochloride activities . Gossypol was used as antifertility agent in male rats. Gossypol is a very toxic crystalline polyphenolic compound Nicardipine hydrochloride and is found in the highest concentration in the seeds of Nicardipine hydrochloride cotton plants . Gossypol induces oxidative stress by the imbalance between antioxidants and prooxidants, resulting in the accumulation of ROS . Oral gossypol acetate was found to reduce the levels of serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone in a dose- and duration-dependent manner . Gossypol acts directly on testes and induces azoospermia or oligospermia . Furthermore, gossypol blocked cAMP formation in sperms, which subsequently decreased sperm motility . It also reduced the secretory activity of accessory sex glands . Therefore, gossypol was used as an efficient male contraceptive drug . The present study was aimed at assessing the therapeutic and/or protective effects of BF against the inflammation process produced during male infertility induced in rats by using gossypol acetate. The study will demonstrate its effect on biochemical blood parameters (TBARS, GSH, testosterone, cholesterol, glucose, and albumin), semen quality (sperm count, motility, morphology, of the National Institutes of Health (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 1996) in the Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt. The healthy experimental animals were equally divided into five groups (Figure 1). Group 1 (control) received corn oil (0.5?ml, intraperitoneally) eight times for 16 days. Group 2 (BF supplemented) received BF (100?mg/kg BW, orally by gavage) daily for 30 days. Group 3 (induced) received gossypol acetate (5?mg/kg BW, intraperitoneally, dissolved in corn oil) eight times for 16 days. Group 4 (protected) was administered BF alone for 2 weeks and then was coadministered with gossypol acetate for the next 16 days. Group 5 (treated) received gossypol acetate for 16 days and then was treated with BF for 30 days. The doses of BF and gossypol acetate were as mentioned in groups 2 and 3, respectively (Figure 1). Experimental animals in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were allowed free access to water and food without any treatments until the 16th day for groups 2 and 4 for and until the 30th day for groups 1 and 3. Open in a separate window Figure 1 An illustration of the experimental design groups. Corn oil (0.5?ml, intraperitoneally) eight times for 16 days, BF (100?mg/kg BW, orally by gavage) daily for 30 days, and gossypol acetate (5?mg/kg BW, intraperitoneally, dissolved in corn oil) eight times for 16 days. Green colour indicates free access to food and water, red colour indicates the administration of corn oil or gossypol acetate, and blue colour indicates treatment with BF. At the end of the experiment (after 46 days), the rats were fasted for eight hours and then the blood was collected from the eye canthus to measure the blood glucose level. Rats were allowed to complete fasting overnight and then decapitated to collect the blood and testes. Sera were isolated and stored at ?20C. 2.4. Preparation of Testicular and Epididymal Tissues After decapitation, one testis was removed and most of the parenchyma (2/3) Rabbit Polyclonal to GCVK_HHV6Z was weighed. A 10% (w/v) homogenate of testis tissues in 0.1?M phosphate buffer saline (PBS), pH?7.4, was prepared by using a mortar in an ice bath and centrifuged at 10,000for 20?min at 4C. The supernatant was collected and stored.