The H&E and IHC staining images were obtained utilizing a microcamera (Leica TCS SP8 MP, Germany)
The H&E and IHC staining images were obtained utilizing a microcamera (Leica TCS SP8 MP, Germany). Isolation of myeloid or Compact disc8+ T cells from tumors or spleen The spleens and tumor masses were removed, homogenized, Diethylstilbestrol and digested with collagenase and hyaluronidase solution (2.5?mg/mL collagenase I, 1?mg/mL collagenase IV, 0.25?mg/mL hyaluronidase IV-S, 300?g/mL DNase I, and 0.01% HEPES in RPMI1640) at 37?C for 2?h. cancer liver metastases (CRCLM). Using mouse models, we demonstrate that iRFA promotes tumor progression and hinders the efficacy of MUC16 anti-PD-1 therapy. Immune analysis reveals that iRFA induces sustained local inflammation with predominant myeloid suppressor cells, which inhibit T cell function in tumors. Mechanistically, tumor cell-derived CCL2 is critical for the accumulation of monocytes and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). The crosstalk between TAMs and tumor cells enhances the CCL2 production by tumor cells. Furthermore, we find that Diethylstilbestrol administration of a?CCR2 antagonist or the loss of CCL2 expression in tumor cells enhances the antitumor activity of PD-1 blockade, providing a salvage alternative for residual tumors after iRFA. in residual wild-type and CCL2?/? CT26 and MC38 tumors on day 9 after iRFA (mRNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Relative mRNA Diethylstilbestrol expression was expressed as fold-change (is the longest diameter and is the perpendicular dimension. All experimental protocols were approved by the Committee for the Protection of Animal Care Committee at Soochow University and Central South University. Animal testing and research conformed to all relevant ethical regulations. Flow cytometric analysis The tumor masses were removed, homogenized, and digested with collagenase and hyaluronidase solution. The resulting cell suspension was filtered through Diethylstilbestrol a cell mesh and resuspended in Hanks media plus 1% fetal calf serum (FCS) for further analysis. Antibodies to CD45 (30-F11, dilution 1:200, Cat 25045182), CD3 (145-2c11, dilution 1:100, Cat 15003842), CD4 (GK1.5, dilution 1:200, Cat 11004181), CD8 (53-6.7, dilution 1:100, Cat MA1-10304), granzyme B (NGZB, dilution 1:200, Cat 11889882), IFN- (XMG1.2, dilution 1:400, Cat 17731181), FoxP3 (FJK-16S, dilution 1:100, Cat 12577382), F4/80 (BM8, dilution 1:100, Cat “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”MF480043″,”term_id”:”1395251571″,”term_text”:”MF480043″MF480043), CD11b (M1/70, dilution 1:200, Cat 11011282), Ly6G (1A8, dilution 1:200, Cat 17966882), CD206 (19.2, 1:100, Cat 56206942), MHC-II (M5/114.15.2, dilution 1:200, Cat 46532182), Gr1 (RB6-8C5, dilution 1:100, Cat MA1-83934), PD-L1 (MIH5, dilution 1:100, Cat 17598282) and PD-1 (RPM1-30, dilution 1:100, Cat 17998182) were purchased from eBioscience. Antibody to Ly6C (AL-21, dilution 1:200, Cat 560595) was purchased from BD Biosciences. Antibody to CCR2 (475301, dilution 1:200, Cat FAB5538P) was purchased from R&D Systems. For intracellular cytokine staining, the cells were permeabilized using a FoxP3 Fixation and Permeabilization Kit (eBioscience) and stained for Foxp3. For intracellular cytokine staining, the harvested cells were stimulated with PMA (50?ng/mL) and ionomycin (500?ng/mL) for 4?h and incubated for 1?h with brefeldin A (10?g/mL). Subsequently, flow cytometric analysis was performed using a FACS flow cytometer (Canto II, BD), and the data were analyzed using FlowJo software (Treestar). Total RNA extraction, real-time PCR, and RNA-seq Total RNA was extracted from tissues, using a total RNA purification kit (Shenergy Biocolor BioScience & Technology Company, Shanghai, China), according to the manufacturers instructions. An equivalent of 2?g total RNA was reverse transcribed into cDNA using the first strand cDNA synthesis kit (Fermantas, Vilnius, Lithuania), according to the manufacturers instructions. The primers, TaqMan probes, and the reference gene were designed according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database using the Primer Premier 5.0 software (Palo Alto, CA, USA). The mRNA levels of the target genes and reference gene -actin were measured using a real-time PCR machine, ABI 7500 (Applied Biosystems, USA). The mRNA levels of the target genes were normalized to that of (Ct?=?Ct gene of interestCCt Gapdh) and reported as relative mRNA expression fold-change. RNA-seq was performed using CapitalBio Technology (Beijing, China), and the data were expressed as mean displayed in the center of the heatmaps. The fold-change was calculated and converted to log2. IHC procedures Four micrometers thick tumor tissues were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, dewaxed in xylene, and rehydrated through a graded series of ethanol. Then, tumor tissue sections were subjected to Diethylstilbestrol routine hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), and IHC staining by CD11b (Cat ab133357, 1:500, Abcam), CD31 (Cat ab28364, 1:1000, Abcam), F4/80 (D2S9R) (Cat 70076S, 1:500, XP), CCL2 (Cat ab25124, 1:1000, Abcam) and TNF (Cat ab6671, 1:1000, Abcam) staining. Briefly, the sections were incubated.